In the United States, incidence rates of breast cancer among women vary substantially by racial/ethnic group. Race/ethnicity and sociodemographic factors may influence a woman's adherence to recommendations for clinical breast examination, breast self-examination, or screening mammogram and the likelihood of her seeking appropriate care in the event that a breast mass is noticed. A growing body of evidence suggests that biological factors may also be important in determining stage at diagnosis (i.e., the growth rate and metastatic potential of small-sized breast cancer tumors may vary between women due to inherent differences in grade and other or unknown pathological features), according to background information in the article.
Javaid Iqbal, M.D., of Women's College Hospital, Toronto, and colleagues examined the proportion of breast cancers that were identified at an early stage (stage I) in different racial/ethnic groups in the United States and whether ethnic differences may be better explained by early detection or by intrinsic biological differences in tumor aggressiveness. The study included women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 2004 to 2011 who were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registries database (n = 452,215). For each of 8 racial/ethnic groups, biological aggressiveness (triple-negative cancers [negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and ERBB2 (formerly HER2 or HER2/neu)], lymph node metastases, and distant metastases) of small-sized tumors of 2.0 cm or less was estimated. In addition, the odds were determined for being diagnosed at stage I compared with a later stage, as was the risk of death from stage I breast cancer by racial/ethnic group.
The 7-year actuarial risk for death from stage I breast cancer was highest for black women (6.2 percent) compared with white women (3.0 percent); it was 1.7 percent for South Asian women. The probability of a woman dying due to small-sized breast cancer tumors (2.0 cm or less) was significantly higher for black women (9.0 percent) compared with non-Hispanic white women (4.6 percent).
The authors write that much of the difference in diagnosis and survival could be statistically accounted for by intrinsic biological differences such as lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and triple-negative behavior of tumors.
Iqbal et al. Differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and cancer-specific survival by race and ethnicity in the United States. JAMA. 2015;313(2):165-173. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.17322 [Article]