The review, conducted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Science, including faculty at the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), hopes to close the gap between human and canine cancer research, and accelerate the knowledge developed by studying cancer in both people and pets, a field known as comparative oncology.
"We are hopeful this analysis will be useful in developing and advancing an agenda for the field of comparative oncology," said Dr. Jeffrey Trent, TGen President and Research Director, and one of the authors of the study. "Many canine breeds develop naturally occurring cancers, such as breast cancer and melanoma, that share remarkable genetic similarities with their human equivalent. This allows us a unique opportunity to have what we learn in the human be of help to the dog, and what we learn in the dog to be of direct help to human patients with these cancers."
Dr. William Hendricks, an Assistant Professor at TGen specializing in canine research, agreed: "It has been remarkable to see first hand the similarity in genetic changes, called mutations, between a dog with melanoma and a human patient with the same disease. Looking through the lens of genetics is giving us new targets and offering new hope for improving our treatment of humans and dogs."
This "gap analysis" is the result of a National Academies Institute of Medicine workshop - The role of Clinical Studies for Pets with Naturally Occurring Tumors in Translational Cancer Research - held June 8-9, 2015, in Washington, D.C.
"Low cancer drug development success rates and the associated high attrition rates of new drugs, particularly late in human clinical trials, are indicative of a key shortcoming in the preclinical development path," said Dr. Chand Khanna, a former Senior Scientist at NCI's Center for Cancer Research, who holds both a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and a Ph.D. in Pathobiology, an interdisciplinary field devoted to basic research into the mechanisms of disease.